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Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings. In , Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the coalescing Danelaw , after its conquest by the Ragnarsson brothers, who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht , as a puppet king.
Aided by the Great Heathen Army which had already overrun much of England from its base in Jorvik , Bagsecg's forces, and Halfdan's forces through an alliance , the combined Viking forces raided much of England until , when they planned an invasion of Wessex.
On 8 January , Bagsecg was killed at the Battle of Ashdown along with his earls. As a result, many of the Vikings returned to northern England, where Jorvic had become the centre of the Viking kingdom, but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep them out of his country.
Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. In , the Danish King Sweyn Forkbeard started a series of raids against England, culminating in a full-scale invasion that led to Sweyn being crowned king of England in Sweyn's son, Cnut the Great , won the throne of England in through conquest.
The Viking presence declined until , when they lost their final battle with the English at Stamford Bridge. The death in the battle of King Harald Hardrada of Norway ended any hope of reviving Cnut's North Sea Empire , and it is because of this, rather than the Norman conquest, that is often taken as the end of the Viking Age.
Nineteen days later, a large army containing and led by senior Normans, themselves mostly male-line descendants of Norsemen, invaded England and defeated the weakened English army at the Battle of Hastings.
The army invited others from across Norman gentry and ecclesiastical society to join them. In , small bands of Vikings began plundering monastic settlements along the coast of Gaelic Ireland.
The Annals of Ulster state that in the Vikings plundered Howth and "carried off a great number of women into captivity".
The first were at Dublin and Linn Duachaill. The Vikings also briefly allied with various Irish kings against their rivals.
They were important trading hubs, and Viking Dublin was the biggest slave port in western Europe. These Viking territories became part of the patchwork of kingdoms in Ireland.
Vikings intermarried with the Irish and adopted elements of Irish culture, becoming the Norse-Gaels. Sigtrygg Silkbeard was "a patron of the arts, a benefactor of the church, and an economic innovator" who established Ireland's first mint , in Dublin.
The Dublin Vikings, together with Leinster , twice rebelled against him, but they were defeated in the battles of Glenmama and Clontarf After the battle of Clontarf, the Dublin Vikings could no longer "single-handedly threaten the power of the most powerful kings of Ireland".
While few records are known, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne , Northumbria.
In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn , both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.
After four months, its water supply failed, and the fortress fell. The Vikings are recorded to have transported a vast prey of British, Pictish, and English captives back to Ireland.
These prisoners may have included the ruling family of Alt Clut including the king Arthgal ap Dyfnwal , who was slain the following year under uncertain circumstances.
The fall of Alt Clut marked a watershed in the history of the realm. The land that now comprises most of the Scottish Lowlands had previously been the northernmost part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria , which fell apart with its Viking conquest; these lands were never regained by the Anglo-Saxons, or England.
The upheaval and pressure of Viking raiding, occupation, conquest and settlement resulted in alliances among the formerly enemy peoples that comprised what would become present-day Scotland.
Over the subsequent years, this Viking upheaval and pressure led to the unification of the previously contending Gaelic, Pictish, British, and English kingdoms, first into the Kingdom of Alba , and finally into the greater Kingdom of Scotland.
The last vestiges of Norse power in the Scottish seas and islands were completely relinquished after another years. The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see Norse-Gaels in the Hebrides and Man.
These areas were ruled over by local Jarls , originally captains of ships or hersirs. The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland, however, claimed supremacy.
In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles.
From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself. He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.
He found himself ruling not only Norway, but also the Isles, Man, and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.
On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson, Thorstein the Red , and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney, invaded Scotland and were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.
Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and, fearing the bounty on his head, fled to Iceland.
The Norse-Gaelic Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.
Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed on a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland. The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man.
However, in , The kingdom was split into two. His kingdom was to develop latterly into the Lordship of the Isles. In eastern Aberdeenshire , the Danes invaded at least as far north as the area near Cruden Bay.
The Jarls of Orkney continued to rule much of northern Scotland until , when Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay tribute to William the Lion , King of Scots, for his territories on the mainland.
The end of the Viking Age proper in Scotland is generally considered to be in After peace talks failed, his forces met with the Scots at Largs , in Ayrshire.
The battle proved indecisive, but it did ensure that the Norse were not able to mount a further attack that year.
Orkney and Shetland continued to be ruled as autonomous Jarldoms under Norway until , when King Christian I pledged them as security on the dowry of his daughter, who was betrothed to James III of Scotland.
Although attempts were made during the 17th and 18th centuries to redeem Shetland, without success,  and Charles II ratifying the pawning in the Act for annexation of Orkney and Shetland to the Crown , explicitly exempting them from any "dissolution of His Majesty's lands",  they are currently considered as being officially part of the United Kingdom.
Axes were the weapon of choice for the common Viking warrior who could not afford to carry a sword into battle. The axes used for combat were light enough to swing with one hand but still capable of delivering a mortal wound.
Viking axes were also instrumental in building the famed Viking longboats. With a single blow, a Viking axe could dismember armored limbs and crack shields and helmets in two.
Battles were half won by the mere sight of a battalion of fearless Viking warriors advancing forward with their battle-axes raised.
Besides an axe, a shield was critically important in Viking combat. See The Viking shield: Why is it round, wooden and painted?
The biggest reasons that Vikings are so closely associated with axes are that these implements were practical , functional , and, perhaps most importantly, affordable.
Unlike other groups, these strange new invaders had no respect for religious institutions such as the monasteries, which were often left unguarded and vulnerable near the shore.
Two years later, Viking raids struck the undefended island monasteries of Skye and Iona in the Hebrides as well as Rathlin off the northeast coast of Ireland.
For several decades, the Vikings confined themselves to hit-and-run raids against coastal targets in the British Isles particularly Ireland and Europe the trading center of Dorestad, 80 kilometers from the North Sea, became a frequent target after They then took advantage of internal conflicts in Europe to extend their activity further inland: after the death of Louis the Pious, emperor of Frankia modern-day France and Germany , in , his son Lothar actually invited the support of a Viking fleet in a power struggle with brothers.
Before long other Vikings realized that Frankish rulers were willing to pay them rich sums to prevent them from attacking their subjects, making Frankia an irresistible target for further Viking activity.
By the mid-ninth century, Ireland, Scotland and England had become major targets for Viking settlement as well as raids. When King Charles the Bald began defending West Frankia more energetically in , fortifying towns, abbeys, rivers and coastal areas, Viking forces began to concentrate more on England than Frankia.
In the wave of Viking attacks in England after , only one kingdom—Wessex—was able to successfully resist. Viking armies mostly Danish conquered East Anglia and Northumberland and dismantled Mercia, while in King Alfred the Great of Wessex became the only king to decisively defeat a Danish army in England.
The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.
However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.
Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.
Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.
The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.
Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.
The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.
The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.
This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.
The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier. Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets.
They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.
Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.
The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.
The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.
The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.
There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century  as referring to the skulls of the slain.
Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.
Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, raiders, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries. Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden.
Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Runestone. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark.
Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala.
Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli. Main article: Viking ships. Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum.
A reconstructed longship. Main article: Viking Age arms and armour. Viking swords. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.
Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Play media. Main article: Horned helmet. Constructs such as ibid. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.
Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian.
Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.
Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.
Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.
Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed.
Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.
Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.
Concise Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. Vikings: Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of NW Europe in the 8th—11th centuries Random House Unabridged Dictionary Random House.
Collins Online Dictionary. The Vikings were people who sailed from Scandinavia and attacked villages in most parts of north-western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries Collins English Dictionary.
Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.
These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Archived from the original on 30 September Lepel Regional Executive Committee.
Visby Sweden , n. A companion to the Early Middle Ages. Who were the first vikings? Viking seeresses A seeress from Fyrkat? During the first 40 years, the raids were conducted by small, mobile Viking groups.
By , the groups consisted of large fleets of Viking ships. From , the Vikings began establishing permanent bases at the coasts.
Dublin was the most significant settlement in the long term. The Irish became accustomed to the Viking presence. In some cases they became allies and married each other.
Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders' desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland.
During the mids, raids began to push deeper into Ireland, as opposed to just touching the coasts. Navigable waterways made this deeper penetration possible.
After , the Vikings had several bases in strategic locations dispersed throughout Ireland. In , a small Viking fleet entered the River Liffey in eastern Ireland.
The Vikings set up a base, which the Irish called a longphort. This longphort eventually became Dublin. After this interaction, the Irish experienced Viking forces for about 40 years.
The Vikings could sail through on the main river and branch off into different areas of the country. One of the last major battles involving Vikings was the Battle of Clontarf on the 23 April , in which Vikings fought both for the Irish over-king Brian Boru 's army and for the Viking-led army opposing him.
Irish and Viking literature depict the Battle of Clontarf as a gathering of this world and the supernatural. For example, witches, goblins, and demons were present.
A Viking poem portrays the environment as strongly pagan. Valkyries chanted and decided who would live and die. While there are few records, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne, Northumbria.
In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn, both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.
The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see- Gall Gaidheal in the Hebrides and Man.
These areas were ruled over by local Jarls, originally captains of ships or Hersirs. The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland however, claimed supremacy.
In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles. From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself.
He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.
He found himself ruling not only Norway, but the Isles, Man and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.
On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson Thorstein the Red and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney invaded Scotland were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.
Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and fearing the bounty on his head fled to Iceland. The Gall-Gaidheal Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.
Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland. The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man.
On a silver disc-brooch from Gotland, a series of animal and human figures protrude outward into space. It is seen on small metal objects, such as the gold spur from Verne Kloster, and seems to have influenced stone carving traditions on the Isle of Man and in northwest England.
This gold spur allowed a rider to control the movements of a horse. Sitting chronologically between the Borre style and the soon-to-be-discussed Mammen style, the Jellinge style is a malleable one.
It appears on a diverse body of objects and can share features with the previous and subsequent styles, leaving it difficult to define as a separate movement.
Despite this mishap, this unique spelling helps art historians differentiate the style from the place. Within their bodies are single rows of beading dot-like metal forms and their feet resemble mitts.
Lappets, the protrusions that look like ponytails, extend from their heads, distinguishing them from creatures of the Borre style. Compositions in this style open up and expand, with the backgrounds becoming more visible.
The anatomy of animal and human figures is simpler, with bodies portrayed as solid masses defined by individual or double contour lines.
Hip joints are represented by spirals, while ankles and wrists are defined by small, geometric segments like those seen on the Jellinge cup. Heads have round or almond-shaped eyes and lips are apt to curl, while ribbon-animals are more prominent and the gripping beast fades.
It influenced art in western Europe, where stone sculptures from York show its considerable influence. A century grave slab from the cemetery beneath York Minster, for instance, integrates the Jellinge style ornament with the Anglican tradition of marking burials with recumbent monuments.
Its compositions span elongated waves and terminate in loose tendrils. We also see foliate motifs that were borrowed from other European traditions.
A few of the qualities associated with the Jellinge style are exaggerated in it, like geometric shapes that segment the wrists, ankles, and other body parts of animals.
Its limbs and wings are represented as expanding coils. Some background is visible, with glimpses of the underlying surface peeking out from beneath lively, energetic designs.Horse fighting Postleitzahlen Lotterie Erfahrungen practised for Buli 2, although the rules are unclear. Thus the term "Viking" was supposedly never limited to a single ethnicity as such, but rather an activity. And all along the trade routes, the Vikings traded in slaves.